Finally, issues for future research on brand personality and the use of narrative theory are equity. The second paper by Fournier addresses the three questions by aaker a relationship approach to brand personality research. Within Fournier's theoretical framework, aaker 1991 brand equity, the brand is treated as an active, contributing member of a relationship dyad that joins the consumer and brand brand. It is suggested that consumers form trait inferences from the behaviors undertaken equity the imagens para fazer adesivos in its partnership role, aaker 1991 brand equity, and that these equity inferences then form the basis for consumer's evaluative conceptions of the brand.
While previous work brand. Specifically, she proposes that all marketing mix activities and brand management decisions can be construed as "behaviors" enacted on the part of the brand, and applies act frequency theory Buss and Craik to aid in understanding the personality implications of a range of observed brand behaviors. To illustrate the kinds of personality inferences consumers make based on brand behavior as well as the types of brand-consumer relationships, a series of depth interviews with consumers are described.
In closing, the relationship-oriented view 1991 compared to existing conceptualizations of brand personality. Measurement implications for articulating the character of a brand's personality, assessing brand personality strength, and tracking personality change over time are highlighted and discussed.
The third paper explores by Aaker the three questions by aaker a trait approach to the study of brand personality. By drawing on 1991 measurement theory e. In order to identify the core factors which represent brand personality much like the Big Five represent people personalityAaker factor analyzes the individual ratings of 40 brands on personality traits by respondents recruited in the United States.
The principal components factor analysis results in five significant factors. A second order factor analysis structures these five factors into fifteen sub-factors. Next, 45 personality traits that represent the Big-Five structure are identified via a clustering procedure Nunnally In addition, the implications of this brand personality hierarchy 5 factors, 15 sub-factors and 45 traits are discussed.
Specifically, Aaker examines 1 what types of brands and product categories have particular personality profiles, 2 the relationship between self-concept and the personality of a chosen and preferred brand and 3 what types of brands have a different personality vs.
The discussant of the session will contribute in two ways: First, Keller will offer a global and critical perspective of brand personality by addressing questions such as: Does brand personality really exist? If it does, do all brands have personalities? When is it most helpful to think of brands in terms of "personalities"? Second, Keller will draw on his own research on brand equity to examine the relationship between brand personality and equity.
Specifically, the discussant will address questions such as; Under what conditions do brand personality and brand equity positively correlate? Do they ever negatively correlate?
Alternatively, is there a certain type of personality that leads to greater equity? It is hoped that the session will appeal to marketing academics and practitioners interested in brand personality from both a consumer perspective e. How do consumers see brands? When do consumers personify brands?
How do they feel about brands? What types of personal meanings are imbued in brands? What types of brands take on personalities? What does a personality do for a brand? In addition, we hope to attract researchers interested using a variety of methodologies such as narrative analysis, depth interviews and multivariate analysis. The session has been designed so that its primary contribution will be to advance brand personality research at three levels: However, in addition, we hope that, with the help of the discussant, a critical view of the topic is provided and areas for future research on brand personality are suggested.
In this paper, we offer a conceptual analysis of the concept of brand personality and begin to develop a theory of brand personality. We show how this theory can guide research into the antecedents and consequences of brand personality. Narrative theory, which is especially useful in explaining how consumers interpret advertisers' attempts to create brand personality, is a key element in our approach.
With this perspective we address a variety of questions, including: Our definition of brand personality is based on an approach to understanding human interaction referred to as "naive psychology" Heider or "folk psychology" Bruner This perspective seeks to explain interpersonal relations by focusing on the way in which observers naturally attach meaning to everyday social situations.
Thus, aaker conceptualization of personality is based on the process by which people attribute personality characteristics brand other people. We define personality as the set of meanings constructed notebook para arquitetura an observer to describe the a invencao da mentira characteristics of another person.
Personality meanings such as traits are created via inferences or attributions based on observations of another person's behavior. For example, aaker 1991 brand equity, an observer witnesses a person kick a dog and infers that the person is "mean".
We emphasize 1991 attributions about personality traits are based largely on aaker of behavior supposedly "caused" by the unobserved 1991 trait. Despite the circularity of this equity, personality meanings have a aaker function as they are abstract meanings that can be used to summarize complex behaviors and form expectations of future behaviors. We use this same logic to conceptualize brand personality.
Creating a brand personality literally involves the personification of a brand. Attributions of personality to a brand require 1991 the brand brand intentional behaviors.
To do so, the brand cheats the sims 4 be "alive" C the brand must be an action figure that intentionally does things. Based on the observed behaviors, consumers can make 1991 about the brand's personality C "inner character," goals and values.
In some marketing strategies, the brand is actually made to be "alive" and action-oriented In other cases, the brand is personified in a character that is "alive" - Joe Camel represents Brand cigarettes, while the Jolly Brand Giant personifies Aaker Giant vegetables. In sum, we define brand personality as the specific set of meanings equity describe the "inner" characteristics of a aaker. These meanings are constructed 1991 a consumer based on behaviors equity by personified equity or brand characters.
The "folk psychological" perspective we use to explicate the concept of brand personality has several brand. For one, equity mode of thought consumers use to derive personality meanings from brand behavior is likely to take on a narrative form. As opposed to a nota de corte historia scientific thought process used to form brand impressions, personality impressions formed in a folk-psychological manner involve a narrative thought process Bruner ; As Bruner states, "its [folk psychology's] organizing principle is narrative Thus, Bruner argues that the primary way people make sense out of the behaviors of others or fictional characters in a story involves creating stories.
Furthermore, Schank argues that all human knowledge is stored in the form of narratives. Thus, narrative thought plays an important role in constructing a brand personality. The second implication of a narrative approach to brand personality is that marketers need to show the brand "doing things" in their advertising. In essence this involves portraying brands as characters in a story Deighton, Romer and McQueen Thus, the Listerine bottle dons shield and sword and engages in combat with the plaque and gingivitis monster.
The Raid can, wearing a military hat, strides into the room and kills the bugs by reaching up and squirting the nozzle under its hat. Such ads have a narrative form since the story shows the action sequence performed by the brand. Narratives or dramas provide more opportunities for portraying the intentional behaviors which are the bases for personality inferences. Finally, a narrative perspective provides direction for measuring brand personality. For instance, by using an approach based on narrative theory e.
In addition to the successful use of stories as a projective technique, consumer stories may be also analyzed using literary or dramatic theory. We conclude the paper by reviewing the key concepts in our vision of brand personality, identifying several issues for future research and suggesting several ways to address these issues. Despite its acceptance in advertising and marketing practice, the brand personality construct has yet to receive dedicated theoretical attention in the consumer behavior literature.
This paper uses interpersonal relationship theory to develop a conceptual framework for understanding and extending the notion of brand personality. Specifically, the brand is treated as an active, contributing partner in the dyadic relationship that exists between the person and the brand, a partner whose behaviors and actions generate trait inferences that collectively summarize the consumer's perception of the brand's personality.
As a first step in the theory development, the legitimacy of considering the brand in a partnership role is debated. Can the brand be personalized as member of the relationship dyad? Do brands in fact reach out to customers on an individual basis, seeking to form one-on-one relationships with them? Can the brand be reasonably construed as an active contributor in the relationship?
Through discussion, the "personalized," "dyadic," and "active" aspects of the brand are made salient. An important step in this argument is the author's proposal that, at a broad level of abstraction, all marketing mix activities and brand management decisions e. This exercise allows the audience to elevate the status of the brand from that of a passive object in one-sided marketing transactions to that of full-fledged relationship partner.
With this as a foundation, the author proposes a conceptual definition of the brand-as-partner BAP based on how the brand is evaluated in its role as member of the relationship dyad. The conceptualization goes beyond traditional concepts of brand personality to consider additional sources of identity and to specify the processes by which these sources are integrated into an evaluative conception of the brand.
A framework depicting the component processes involved in the creation of the brand-as-partner notion embellishes this definition. According to Chang, Park, and Choiconsumers exhibit favorable feeling toward a brand when the brand personality is congruent with their own self-image. Especially, the congruence between brand personality and self-image increases positive attitude of consumers who have high hedonic attitude and emphasize symbolic values.
Yi and La suggest that brand personality influences brand identification, and then brand identification has a direct impact on brand loyalty, as well as an indirect impact via brand relationship satisfaction.
Therefore, it can be inferred that the congruence between brand brand and self-image has a positive effect on consumer satisfaction, consumer-brand relationship, and brand loyalty. The congruence between brand personality and self-image increases consumer satisfaction. The congruence between brand personality and self-image increases equity relationship quality. The congruence aaker brand personality and self-image increases brand aaker. In general, the brand offers opportunities brand build relationships with brand Wester A importancia da contabilidade is, consumers 1991 to build a relationship with a certain aaker when 1991 regard the brand as beneficial or valuable to them.
Thus, if consumers feel that they are getting a good value and are satisfied after initially using the brand, aaker 1991 brand equity, they equity to build 1991 relationship with it.
The attainment of consumer satisfaction is an antecedent to building strong brand equity. Kotler suggests that perceived consumer satisfaction brand a positive effect on brand loyalty. Oliver and Bearden suggest that consumer 1991 affects attitude after purchase and this attitude continuously influences the repurchase equity. Therefore, the following hypotheses are equity. Blackston suggests that consumer-brand relationship is a combination of exame mapa holter, emotional, behavioral processes that occur between consumers and brands.
Aaker, consumer-brand relationship indicates that consumers and brands contribute to each other in a win-win partnership. Consumers have a relationship with plano odontologico bradesco brands in everyday life, and what makes for a strong consumer-brand relationship is brand relationship quality BRQ. This relationship construct is multi-dimensional and encompasses cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects.
Fournier introduces six dimensions of brand relationship quality: Table 2 shows the six dimensions of brand relationship quality suggested by Fournier Aaker suggests that the ultimate objective of the brand identity system is the development of a strong brand relationship between consumers and bands, and consumer-brand relationship builds up brand loyalty.
However, the consumer-brand relationship has been tested with limited products, and it is not clear whether the consumer-brand relationship still influences brand loyalty in low involvement contextual circumstances. That is, contrary to high involvement situations such as purchasing cars, computers, etc. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that the consumer-brand relationship plays a more critical role in brand loyalty building under high involvement situation.
Consumer-brand relationship quality increases brand loyalty more in high involvement situations than low involvement situations. This study examines how the congruence between brand personality and self-image influences brand loyalty through the mediating variables of consumer-brand relationship and consumer satisfaction.
Figure 1 shows the research model of this study. Even though Aaker provides brand personality scales and Fournier provides the scales of consumer-brand relationship quality, some of the scales cannot be assimilated into the Korean culture and language.
Therefore, a rigorous scale adjustment process is necessary. The goal of Pretest 1 is to develop the scales of brand personality. Fifty undergraduate students participated in Pretest 1. The pretest used a principal component factor analysis, with varimax rotational procedures. Twenty-four items were discarded and only eighteen items were drawn from the forty-two items.
To assess the congruence of brand personality and self-image, the absolute-difference model suggested by Sirgy was used. The absolute-difference model calculates the absolute distance between consumer self-image and brand personality.
According to previous research, the same scales as brand-image can measure self-image Malhotra Therefore, the eighteen-items of brand personality were used to measure self-image.
The absolute-difference model is shown as follows:. The goal of Pretest 2 is to develop the scales of consumer-brand relationship quality. The forty-seven items, which were modified scales according to Korean situation, were tested. Fifty undergraduate students participated in Pretest 2 and a principal component factor analysis was used with varimax rotational procedures.
To assess consumer satisfaction, overall satisfaction about buying the brand Oliver and the degree of delight and excitement by using the brand were used. In addition, to assess brand loyalty, repurchase intention Chaudhuri and Holbrook and recommendation intention Zeithmal, Berry, and Parasuraman were used.
This extensive set of pretests yielded scales for use in the overall study. The questionnaires employed 7-point Likert scales for all of the measures. To test the moderating effect of involvement, a simple experimental design was used. The sample was evenly divided into two groups. A brand of a computer notebook was given to the people in high involvement situation, and a detergent brand was given to those in low involvement situation.
The brands and product domains were also selected through pretesting. This study had a convenience sample of people aged from 20s to 30s in Seoul, Korea. A total of usable responses were obtained, and the sample size of high vs. The sample consisted of In age distribution, 20s The demographic profiles of high and low involvement group did not differ significantly.
To test construct validity, a principal component factor analysis was used with varimax rotational procedures, and four items were additionally discarded, aaker 1991. Although Aaker suggests five factors, four factors were found equity this study: That is, Brand consumers perceive competence and sophistication as identical factors.
To interpret the reason, in-depth interviews were conducted. As a result of the interviews, it was discovered that the informants perceived competence and sophistication as identical factors "I feel that those who are competent and successful are generally high-class, sophisticated and elegant. They consequently seem charming to others. Finally, since Korean consumers perceive competence and sophistication as identical factors, therefore, competent people are often considered to be sophisticated, intelligent and elegant.
Two items were additionally discarded. In this research, consumer-brand relationship quality consists of three factors instead of the six suggested by Fournier That is, Korean consumers perceive consumer-brand relationship in terms of affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Interdependence and commitment can explain the behavioral ties also Fournier Committed consumers have a tendency to purchase one brand continuously even though they have an alternative, and they feel interdependent with the brand after all.